[195] By doing this she had hoped to ward off the growing political conflict between Hindu and Sikh groups in the region. a Motilal Nehru. [165][173] Much of that growth, however, was offset by the fact that the external aid promised by the United States government and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), meant to ease the short-run costs of adjustment to a liberalised economy, never materialised. The Congress Party split during the election campaign of 1977: veteran Gandhi supporters like Jagjivan Ram, Hemvati Nandan Bahuguna and Nandini Satpathy were compelled to part ways and form a new political entity, the CFD (Congress for Democracy), due primarily to intra-party politicking and the circumstances created by Sanjay Gandhi. (a) Mahatma Gandhi (b) Indira Gandhi (c) Jawaharlal Nehru (d) Motilal Nehru. [35] In January 1966, after Shastri's death, the Congress legislative party elected her over Morarji Desai as their leader. [150] After reaching a high diplomatic point in the aftermath of Nehru's role in the Suez Crisis, India's isolation from Africa was complete when only four nations—Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria and Libya—supported her during the Sino-Indian War in 1962. The programme emphasised greater state control of the economy with the understanding that government control assured greater welfare than private control. Agricultural technological advancements offered opportunities to increase productivity. Egypt's stance was met with dismay by the Indians, who had come to expect close co-operation with the Baathist regimes. She went to war with Pakistan in support of the independence movement and war of independence in East Pakistan, which resulted in an Indian victory and the creation of Bangladesh, as well as increasing India's influence to the point where it became the sole regional power of South Asia. The rebellion was suppressed with the Indian Air Force carrying out airstrikes in Aizawl; this remains the only instance of India carrying out an airstrike in its own territory. Norman, Dorothy. [citation needed], Gandhi spent a number of years in Europe during her youth and had formed many friendships there. [129], India maintained close ties with neighbouring Bangladesh (formerly East Pakistan) following the Liberation War. When Indira Gandhi became PM in January 1966, she had to confront this severe food crisis, made worse by the bad drought years of 1965-66. Dr. Dogra extracted bullets to establish the make of the weapons used and to match each weapon with the bullets recovered by ballistic examination. The Indian Libertarian wrote that: "it would be difficult to find a more machiavellian leftist than Mrs Indira Gandhi ... for here is Machiavelli at its best in the person of a suave, charming and astute politician. Her lieutenant, P. V. Narasimha Rao, later became prime minister and approved full diplomatic ties with Israel in 1992. [183] The government subsequently launched Operation Forward in 1982, the first cautious attempt at reform. However, at an … She was the mother of every Indian supremo", "Indira Gandhi – India's democrat with an authoritarian bent", "The darkest phase in Indira's tenure as PM – Emergency! "These programs also provided the central political leadership with new and vast patronage resources to be disbursed ... throughout the country. Populist programmes and policies were replaced by pragmatism. [149], Although independent India was initially viewed as a champion of various African independence movements, its cordial relationship with the Commonwealth of Nations and its liberal views of British policies in East Africa had harmed its image as a staunch supporter of various independence movements in the third world. Updated Nov 13, 2020 | 17:18 IST Netizens had a field day after Barack Obama's description of Rahul Gandhi went viral on social media. This had been her first economic policy formulation, six months after coming to office. While it was thought at the time, and for decades after, that President Johnson's policy of withholding food grain shipments was to coerce Indian support for the war, in fact, it was to offer India rainmaking technology that he wanted to use as a counterweight to China's possession of the atomic bomb. In response, Gandhi nationalised oil companies in 1973. Women As National Leaders. [173] The government was able to exceed the targeted growth figure with an annual growth rate of 5.0–5.2% over the five-year period of the plan (1974–79). [26][27] Indira did, however, have an active part within the student life of the university, such as membership in the Oxford Majlis Asian Society. [81][82] The conditions included dropping all charges against Gandhi and Sanjay. These factors formed a rationale for the implementation of the Green Revolution as a development strategy in India. [146] Gandhi was unhappy with the lack of support from India's Arab allies during the war with Pakistan, while the Shah was apprehensive at the growing friendship between Pakistan and Arab states of the Persian Gulf, especially Saudi Arabia, and the growing influence of Islam in Pakistani society. Related Articles: Biography of Swami … Her Cabinet and government then recommended that President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed declare a state of emergency because of the disorder and lawlessness following the Allahabad High Court decision. India defeated Pakistan leading to their surrender and creation of Bangladesh. The Indira Gandhi Canal (Originally: Rajasthan Canal) is the longest canal of India.It starts from the Harike Barrage at Harike, a few kilometers below the confluence of the Satluj and Beas rivers in the Indian state of Punjab and terminates in irrigation facilities in the Thar Desert in the north west of Rajasthan state. [166] Armed with the power to rule by decree and without constitutional constraints, Gandhi embarked on a massive redistribution program. Relations with the US were strained badly under President Richard Nixon and his favouring of Pakistan during the Bangladesh liberation war. Boston: Shankar, A. To ensure that we didn’t depend on the charity of Americans, she supported the Green Revolution. Gandhi did not make a special effort to appoint women to cabinet positions. Print. [228][229] Who released a special stamp entitled ‘Wheat Revolution’ in July 1968? But during the Green Revolution many different agricultural experiments were tested, such as double cropping and genetically improved seeds. South Asian History and Culture 1.4 (2010): 480–493. [191] Nationalisation also resulted in significant growth in the geographic coverage of banks; the number of bank branches rose from 8,200 to over 62,000, most of which were opened in unbanked, rural areas. The slogan was developed in response to the combined opposition alliance's use of the two word manifesto—"Indira Hatao" (Remove Indira). The Green Revolution was the success in food growth and agriculture in third world that took place in the 1960's and 1970's during Indira's time as Prime Minister. [134], Gandhi's approach to dealing with Sri Lanka's ethnic problems was initially accommodating. [8][9] However, agricultural scientists like Swaminathan[10] and social activists like Vandana Shiva are of the opinion that it caused greater long term sociological and financial problems for the people of Punjab and Haryana. [62] Police were granted powers to impose curfews and detain citizens indefinitely; all publications were subjected to substantial censorship by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. [6] In 1980, she returned to power after free and fair elections. [120] She was also responsible for India joining the group of countries with nuclear weapons. To whom the yellow card is issued? Norman Borlaug discovers of improved varieties of wheat to increase agricultural production. War, Gandhi remains a left-wing icon India and the trio stood to that. 150 ], under the government 's revenue indira gandhi wheat revolution during Gandhi 's rule purse former... Below 1t/ha in wheat production formed her government targeted an annual growth rate of 4.4 % over following... 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